A game programmer, interested in graphics programming.
Posts by Simon Yeung
  1. Implementing Voxel Cone Tracing ( Counting comments... )
  2. Angle based SSAO ( Counting comments... )
  3. Shader Generator ( Counting comments... )
  4. Photon Mapping Part 2 ( Counting comments... )
  5. Photon Mapping Part 1 ( Counting comments... )
  6. Software Rasterizer Part 2 ( Counting comments... )
  7. Software Rasterizer Part 1 ( Counting comments... )
  8. Light Pre Pass Renderer on iPhone ( Counting comments... )
  9. Extracting dominant light from Spherical Harmonics ( Counting comments... )
  10. Inverse Kinematics (2 joints) for foot placement ( Counting comments... )
  11. Writing an iPhone Game Engine (Part 7- Postmortem) ( Counting comments... )
  12. Microfacet BRDF ( Counting comments... )
  13. Spherical Harmonic Lighting ( Counting comments... )
  14. Dual Quaternion ( Counting comments... )
  15. Dual Number ( Counting comments... )
  16. Using PID Controller ( Counting comments... )
  17. Writing an iPhone Game Engine (Part 6- Performance) ( Counting comments... )
  18. Writing an iPhone Game Engine (Part 5- Audio) ( Counting comments... )
  19. Writing an iPhone Game Engine (Part 4- Streaming) ( Counting comments... )
  20. Writing an iPhone Game Engine (Part 3- Scripting) ( Counting comments... )
  21. Writing an iPhone Game Engine (Part 2- Maya Tools) ( Counting comments... )
  22. Writing an iPhone Game Engine (Part 1- Memory management) ( Counting comments... )
  23. Writing an iPhone Game Engine (Part 0 - Introduction) ( Counting comments... )
  24. SSAO using Line Integrals ( Counting comments... )
Technology/ Code / Visual Arts /


Continue with previous post, this post will describe how light map is calculated from the photon map. My light map stores incoming radiance of indirect lighting on a surface which are projected into Spherical Harmonics(SH) basis. 4 SH coefficients is used  for each color channels. So 3 textures are used for RGB channels (total 12 coefficients).

Baking the light map

To bake the light map, the scene must have a set of unique, non-overlapping texture coordinates(UV) that correspond to a unique world space position so that the incoming radiance at a world position can be represented. This set of UV can be generated inside modeling package or using UVAtlas. In my simple case, this UV is mapped manually.

To generate the light map, given a mesh with unique UV and the light map resolution, we need to rasterize the mesh (using scan-line or half-space rasterization) into the texture space with interpolated world space position across the triangles. So we can associate a world space position to a light map texel. Then for each texel, we can sample the photon map at the corresponding world space position by performing a final gather step just like previous post for offline rendering. So the incoming radiance at that world space position, hence the texel in the light map, can be calculated. Then the data is projected into SH coefficients, stored in 3 16-bits floating point textures. Below is a light map that extracting the dominant light color from SH coefficients:

The baked light map showing the dominant

light color from SH coefficients

Using the light map

After baking the light map, during run-time, the direct lighting is rendering with usual way, a point light is used to approximated the area light in the ray traced version, the difference is more noticeable at the shadow edges.

direct lighting only, real time version
direct lighting only, ray traced version

Then we sample the SH coefficients from the light map to calculate the indirect lighting

indirect lighting only, real time version
indirect lighting only, ray traced version

Combining the direct and indirect lighting, the final result becomes:

direct + indirect lighting, real time version
direct + indirect lighting, ray traced version


As we store the light map in SH, we can apply normal map to the mesh to change the reflected radiance.
Rendered with normal map
Indirect lighting with normal map

We can also applying some tessellation, adding some ambient occlusion(AO) to make the result more interesting:

Rendered with light map, normal map, tessellation and AO
Rendered with light map, normal map, tessellation and AO


This post gives an overview on how to bake light map of indirect lighting data by sampling from the photon map. I use SH to store the incoming radiance, but other data can be stored such as storing the reflected diffuse radiance of the surface, which can reduce texture storage and doesn't require floating point texture. Besides, the SH coefficients can be store per vertex in the static mesh instead of light map. Lastly, by sampling the photon map with final gather rays, light probe for dynamic objects can also be baked using similar methods.


March of the Froblins: http://developer.amd.com/samples/demos/pages/froblins.aspx

Lighting and Material of HALO 3: http://www.bungie.net/images/Inside/publications/presentations/lighting_material.zip